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Technician Class Exam Question Pool

effective 7/01/2014 thru 6/30/2018

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Topic T3: Radio Fundamentals


T3A-2014: Radio wave characteristics: how a radio signal travels; fading; multipath; wavelength vs. penetration; antenna orientation

T3A01-2014: What should you do if another operator reports that your station’s 2 meter signals were strong just a moment ago, but now they are weak or distorted?

Try moving a few feet or changing the direction of your antenna if possible, as reflections may be causing multi-path distortion

Change the batteries in your radio to a different type

Turn on the CTCSS tone

Ask the other operator to adjust his squelch control



T3A02-2014: Why are UHF signals often more effective from inside buildings than VHF signals?

The shorter wavelength allows them to more easily penetrate the structure of buildings

VHF signals lose power faster over distance

This is incorrect; VHF works better than UHF inside buildings

UHF antennas are more efficient than VHF antennas



T3A03-2014: What antenna polarization is normally used for long-distance weak-signal CW and SSB contacts using the VHF and UHF bands?

Horizontal

Right-hand circular

Left-hand circular

Vertical



T3A04-2014: What can happen if the antennas at opposite ends of a VHF or UHF line of sight radio link are not using the same polarization?

Signals could be significantly weaker

The modulation sidebands might become inverted

Signals have an echo effect on voices

Nothing significant will happen



T3A05-2014: When using a directional antenna, how might your station be able to access a distant repeater if buildings or obstructions are blocking the direct line of sight path?

Try to find a path that reflects signals to the repeater

Change from vertical to horizontal polarization

Try the long path

Increase the antenna SWR



T3A06-2014: What term is commonly used to describe the rapid fluttering sound sometimes heard from mobile stations that are moving while transmitting?

Picket fencing

Flip-flopping

Frequency shifting

Pulsing



T3A07-2014: What type of wave carries radio signals between transmitting and receiving stations?

Electromagnetic

Electrostatic

Surface acoustic

Magnetostrictive



T3A08-2014: Which of the following is a likely cause of irregular fading of signals received by ionospheric reflection?

Random combining of signals arriving via different paths

Frequency shift due to Faraday rotation

Interference from thunderstorms

Intermodulation distortion



T3A09-2014: Which of the following results from the fact that skip signals refracted from the ionosphere are elliptically polarized?

Either vertically or horizontally polarized antennas may be used for transmission or reception

Digital modes are unusable

FM voice is unusable

Both the transmitting and receiving antennas must be of the same polarization



T3A10-2014: What may occur if data signals propagate over multiple paths?

Error rates are likely to increase

Transmission rates can be increased by a factor equal to the number of separate paths observed

Transmission rates must be decreased by a factor equal to the number of separate paths observed

No significant changes will occur if the signals are transmitting using FM



T3A11-2014: Which part of the atmosphere enables the propagation of radio signals around the world?

The ionosphere

The stratosphere

The troposphere

The magnetosphere






T3B-2014: Radio and electromagnetic wave properties: the electromagnetic spectrum; wavelength vs. frequency; velocity of electromagnetic waves; calculating wavelength

T3B01-2014: What is the name for the distance a radio wave travels during one complete cycle?

Wavelength

Wave speed

Waveform

Wave spread



T3B02-2014: What property of a radio wave is used to describe its polarization?

The orientation of the electric field

The orientation of the magnetic field

The ratio of the energy in the magnetic field to the energy in the electric field

The ratio of the velocity to the wavelength



T3B03-2014: What are the two components of a radio wave?

Electric and magnetic fields

AC and DC

Voltage and current

Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation



T3B04-2014: How fast does a radio wave travel through free space?

At the speed of light

At the speed of sound

Its speed is inversely proportional to its wavelength

Its speed increases as the frequency increases



T3B05-2014: How does the wavelength of a radio wave relate to its frequency?

The wavelength gets shorter as the frequency increases

The wavelength gets longer as the frequency increases

There is no relationship between wavelength and frequency

The wavelength depends on the bandwidth of the signal



T3B06-2014: What is the formula for converting frequency to approximate wavelength in meters?

Wavelength in meters equals 300 divided by frequency in megahertz

Wavelength in meters equals frequency in hertz multiplied by 300

Wavelength in meters equals frequency in hertz divided by 300

Wavelength in meters equals frequency in megahertz divided by 300



T3B07-2014: What property of radio waves is often used to identify the different frequency bands?

The approximate wavelength

The magnetic intensity of waves

The time it takes for waves to travel one mile

The voltage standing wave ratio of waves



T3B08-2014: What are the frequency limits of the VHF spectrum?

30 to 300 MHz

30 to 300 kHz

300 to 3000 kHz

300 to 3000 MHz



T3B09-2014: What are the frequency limits of the UHF spectrum?

300 to 3000 MHz

30 to 300 kHz

30 to 300 MHz

300 to 3000 kHz



T3B10-2014: What frequency range is referred to as HF?

3 to 30 MHz

300 to 3000 MHz

30 to 300 MHz

300 to 3000 kHz



T3B11-2014: What is the approximate velocity of a radio wave as it travels through free space?

300,000,000 meters per second

3000 kilometers per second

300,000 miles per hour

186,000 miles per hour






T3C-2014: Propagation modes: line of sight; sporadic E; meteor and auroral scatter and reflections; tropospheric ducting; F layer skip; radio horizon

T3C01-2014: Why are direct (not via a repeater) UHF signals rarely heard from stations outside your local coverage area?

UHF signals are usually not reflected by the ionosphere

They are too weak to go very far

FCC regulations prohibit them from going more than 50 miles

They collide with trees and shrubbery and fade out



T3C02-2014: Which of the following might be happening when VHF signals are being received from long distances?

Signals are being refracted from a sporadic E layer

Signals are being reflected from outer space

Signals are arriving by sub-surface ducting

Signals are being reflected by lightning storms in your area



T3C03-2014: What is a characteristic of VHF signals received via auroral reflection?

The signals exhibit rapid fluctuations of strength and often sound distorted

Signals from distances of 10,000 or more miles are common

These types of signals occur only during winter nighttime hours

These types of signals are generally strongest when your antenna is aimed west



T3C04-2014: Which of the following propagation types is most commonly associated with occasional strong over-the-horizon signals on the 10, 6, and 2 meter bands?

Sporadic E

Backscatter

D layer absorption

Gray-line propagation



T3C05-2014: Which of the following effects might cause radio signals to be heard despite obstructions between the transmitting and receiving stations?

Knife-edge diffraction

Faraday rotation

Quantum tunneling

Doppler shift



T3C06-2014: What mode is responsible for allowing over-the-horizon VHF and UHF communications to ranges of approximately 300 miles on a regular basis?

Tropospheric scatter

D layer refraction

F2 layer refraction

Faraday rotation



T3C07-2014: What band is best suited for communicating via meteor scatter?

6 meters

10 meters

2 meters

70 cm



T3C08-2014: What causes tropospheric ducting?

Temperature inversions in the atmosphere

Discharges of lightning during electrical storms

Sunspots and solar flares

Updrafts from hurricanes and tornadoes



T3C09-2014: What is generally the best time for long-distance 10 meter band propagation via the F layer?

From dawn to shortly after sunset during periods of high sunspot activity

From shortly after sunset to dawn during periods of high sunspot activity

From dawn to shortly after sunset during periods of low sunspot activity

From shortly after sunset to dawn during periods of low sunspot activity



T3C10-2014: What is the radio horizon?

The distance over which two stations can communicate by direct path

The distance from the ground to a horizontally mounted antenna

The farthest point you can see when standing at the base of your antenna tower

The shortest distance between two points on the Earth's surface



T3C11-2014: Why do VHF and UHF radio signals usually travel somewhat farther than the visual line of sight distance between two stations?

The Earth seems less curved to radio waves than to light

Radio signals move somewhat faster than the speed of light

Radio waves are not blocked by dust particles

Radio waves are blocked by dust particles



T3C12-2014: Which of the following bands may provide long distance communications during the peak of the sunspot cycle?

Six or ten meters

23 centimeters

70 centimeters or 1.25 meters

All of these choices are correct





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