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effective 7/01/2016 thru 6/29/2020

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2016-E3B: Transequatorial propagation; long path; gray-line; multi-path; ordinary and extraordinary waves; chordal hop, sporadic E mechanisms

2016-E3B01: What is transequatorial propagation?

Propagation between two mid-latitude points at approximately the same distance north and south of the magnetic equator

Propagation between any two points located on the magnetic equator

Propagation between two continents by way of ducts along the magnetic equator

Propagation between two stations at the same latitude

2016-E3B02: What is the approximate maximum range for signals using transequatorial propagation?

5000 miles

1000 miles

2500 miles

7500 miles

2016-E3B03: What is the best time of day for transequatorial propagation?

Afternoon or early evening



Late at night

2016-E3B04: What is meant by the terms extraordinary and ordinary waves?

Independent waves created in the ionosphere that are elliptically polarized

Extraordinary waves describe rare long skip propagation compared to ordinary waves which travel shorter distances

Long path and short path waves

Refracted rays and reflected waves

2016-E3B05: Which amateur bands typically support long-path propagation?

160 meters to 10 meters

160 meters to 40 meters

30 meters to 10 meters

6 meters to 2 meters

2016-E3B06: Which of the following amateur bands most frequently provides long-path propagation?

20 meters

80 meters

10 meters

6 meters

2016-E3B07: Which of the following could account for hearing an echo on the received signal of a distant station?

Receipt of a signal by more than one path

High D layer absorption

Meteor scatter

Transmit frequency is higher than the MUF

2016-E3B08: What type of HF propagation is probably occurring if radio signals travel along the terminator between daylight and darkness?





2016-E3B09: At what time of year is Sporadic E propagation most likely to occur?

Around the solstices, especially the summer solstice

Around the solstices, especially the winter solstice

Around the equinoxes, especially the spring equinox

Around the equinoxes, especially the fall equinox

2016-E3B10: What is the cause of gray-line propagation?

At twilight and sunrise, D-layer absorption is low while E-layer and F-layer propagation remains high

At midday, the Sun super heats the ionosphere causing increased refraction of radio waves

In darkness, solar absorption drops greatly while atmospheric ionization remains steady

At mid-afternoon, the Sun heats the ionosphere decreasing radio wave refraction and the MUF

2016-E3B11: At what time of day is Sporadic-E propagation most likely to occur?

Any time

Around sunset

Around sunrise

Early evening

2016-E3B12: What is the primary characteristic of chordal hop propagation?

Successive ionospheric reflections without an intermediate reflection from the ground

Propagation away from the great circle bearing between stations

Propagation across the geomagnetic equator

Signals reflected back toward the transmitting station

2016-E3B13: Why is chordal hop propagation desirable?

The signal experiences less loss along the path compared to normal skip propagation

The MUF for chordal hop propagation is much lower than for normal skip propagation

Atmospheric noise is lower in the direction of chordal hop propagation

Signals travel faster along ionospheric chords

2016-E3B14: What happens to linearly polarized radio waves that split into ordinary and extraordinary waves in the ionosphere?

They become elliptically polarized

They are bent toward the magnetic poles

Their polarization is randomly modified

They become phase-locked

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2016-E3A: Electromagnetic waves; Earth-Moon-Earth communications; meteor scatter; microwave tropospheric and scatter propagation; aurora propagation
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2016-E3C: Radio-path horizon; less common propagation modes; propagation prediction techniques and modeling; space weather parameters and amateur radio
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