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Extra Class Exam Question Pool

effective 7/01/2016 thru 6/29/2020

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Topic 2016-E2: Operating Procedures


2016-E2A: Amateur radio in space: amateur satellites; orbital mechanics; frequencies and modes; satellite hardware; satellite operations; experimental telemetry applications

2016-E2A01: What is the direction of an ascending pass for an amateur satellite?

From south to north

From west to east

From east to west

From north to south



2016-E2A02: What is the direction of a descending pass for an amateur satellite?

From north to south

From west to east

From east to west

From south to north



2016-E2A03: What is the orbital period of an Earth satellite?

The time it takes for a satellite to complete one revolution around the Earth

The point of maximum height of a satellite's orbit

The point of minimum height of a satellite's orbit

The time it takes for a satellite to travel from perigee to apogee



2016-E2A04: What is meant by the term mode as applied to an amateur radio satellite?

The satellite's uplink and downlink frequency bands

The type of signals that can be relayed through the satellite

The satellite's orientation with respect to the Earth

Whether the satellite is in a polar or equatorial orbit



2016-E2A05: What do the letters in a satellite's mode designator specify?

The uplink and downlink frequency ranges

Power limits for uplink and downlink transmissions

The location of the ground control station

The polarization of uplink and downlink signals



2016-E2A06: On what band would a satellite receive signals if it were operating in mode U/V?

435 MHz - 438 MHz

144 MHz - 146 MHz

50.0 MHz - 50.2 MHz

29.5 MHz - 29.7 MHz



2016-E2A07: Which of the following types of signals can be relayed through a linear transponder?

All of these choices are correct

FM and CW

SSB and SSTV

PSK and Packet



2016-E2A08: Why should effective radiated power to a satellite which uses a linear transponder be limited?

To avoid reducing the downlink power to all other users

To prevent creating errors in the satellite telemetry

To prevent the satellite from emitting out-of-band signals

To avoid interfering with terrestrial QSOs



2016-E2A09: What do the terms L band and S band specify with regard to satellite communications?

The 23 centimeter and 13 centimeter bands

The 2 meter and 70 centimeter bands

FM and Digital Store-and-Forward systems

Which sideband to use



2016-E2A10: Why may the received signal from an amateur satellite exhibit a rapidly repeating fading effect?

Because the satellite is spinning

Because of ionospheric absorption

Because of the satellite's low orbital altitude

Because of the Doppler Effect



2016-E2A11: What type of antenna can be used to minimize the effects of spin modulation and Faraday rotation?

A circularly polarized antenna

A linearly polarized antenna

An isotropic antenna

A log-periodic dipole array



2016-E2A12: What is one way to predict the location of a satellite at a given time?

By calculations using the Keplerian elements for the specified satellite

By means of the Doppler data for the specified satellite

By subtracting the mean anomaly from the orbital inclination

By adding the mean anomaly to the orbital inclination



2016-E2A13: What type of satellite appears to stay in one position in the sky?

Geostationary

HEO

Geomagnetic

LEO



2016-E2A14: What technology is used to track, in real time, balloons carrying amateur radio transmitters?

APRS

Radar

Bandwidth compressed LORAN

Doppler shift of beacon signals






2016-E2B: Television practices: fast scan television standards and techniques; slow scan television standards and techniques

2016-E2B01: How many times per second is a new frame transmitted in a fast-scan (NTSC) television system?

30

60

90

120



2016-E2B02: How many horizontal lines make up a fast-scan (NTSC) television frame?

525

30

60

1080



2016-E2B03: How is an interlaced scanning pattern generated in a fast-scan (NTSC) television system?

By scanning odd numbered lines in one field and even numbered lines in the next

By scanning two fields simultaneously

By scanning each field from bottom to top

By scanning lines from left to right in one field and right to left in the next



2016-E2B04: What is blanking in a video signal?

Turning off the scanning beam while it is traveling from right to left or from bottom to top

Synchronization of the horizontal and vertical sync pulses

Turning off the scanning beam at the conclusion of a transmission

Transmitting a black and white test pattern



2016-E2B05: Which of the following is an advantage of using vestigial sideband for standard fast-scan TV transmissions?

Vestigial sideband reduces bandwidth while allowing for simple video detector circuitry

The vestigial sideband carries the audio information

The vestigial sideband contains chroma information

Vestigial sideband provides high frequency emphasis to sharpen the picture



2016-E2B06: What is vestigial sideband modulation?

Amplitude modulation in which one complete sideband and a portion of the other are transmitted

A type of modulation in which one sideband is inverted

Narrow-band FM modulation achieved by filtering one sideband from the audio before frequency modulating the carrier

Spread spectrum modulation achieved by applying FM modulation following single sideband amplitude modulation



2016-E2B07: What is the name of the signal component that carries color information in NTSC video?

Chroma

Luminance

Hue

Spectral Intensity



2016-E2B08: Which of the following is a common method of transmitting accompanying audio with amateur fast-scan television?

All of these choices are correct

Frequency-modulated sub-carrier

A separate VHF or UHF audio link

Frequency modulation of the video carrier



2016-E2B09: What hardware, other than a receiver with SSB capability and a suitable computer, is needed to decode SSTV using Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM)?

No other hardware is needed

A special IF converter

A special front end limiter

A special notch filter to remove synchronization pulses



2016-E2B10: Which of the following is an acceptable bandwidth for Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) based voice or SSTV digital transmissions made on the HF amateur bands?

3 KHz

10 KHz

15 KHz

20 KHz



2016-E2B11: What is the function of the Vertical Interval Signaling (VIS) code sent as part of an SSTV transmission?

To identify the SSTV mode being used

To lock the color burst oscillator in color SSTV images

To provide vertical synchronization

To identify the call sign of the station transmitting



2016-E2B12: How are analog SSTV images typically transmitted on the HF bands?

Varying tone frequencies representing the video are transmitted using single sideband

Video is converted to equivalent Baudot representation

Video is converted to equivalent ASCII representation

Varying tone frequencies representing the video are transmitted using PSK



2016-E2B13: How many lines are commonly used in each frame of an amateur slow-scan color television picture?

128 or 256

30 or 60

60 or 100

180 or 360



2016-E2B14: What aspect of an amateur slow-scan television signal encodes the brightness of the picture?

Tone frequency

Tone amplitude

Sync amplitude

Sync frequency



2016-E2B15: What signals SSTV receiving equipment to begin a new picture line?

Specific tone frequencies

Elapsed time

Specific tone amplitudes

A two-tone signal



2016-E2B16: Which is a video standard used by North American Fast Scan ATV stations?

NTSC

PAL

DRM

Scottie



2016-E2B17: What is the approximate bandwidth of a slow-scan TV signal?

3 kHz

600 Hz

2 MHz

6 MHz



2016-E2B18: On which of the following frequencies is one likely to find FM ATV transmissions?

1255 MHz

14.230 MHz

29.6 MHz

52.525 MHz



2016-E2B19: What special operating frequency restrictions are imposed on slow scan TV transmissions?

They are restricted to phone band segments and their bandwidth can be no greater than that of a voice signal of the same modulation type

None; they are allowed on all amateur frequencies

They are restricted to 7.245 MHz, 14.245 MHz, 21.345 MHz, and 28.945 MHz

They are not permitted above 54 MHz






2016-E2C: Operating methods: contest and DX operating; remote operation techniques; Cabrillo format; QSLing; RF network connected systems

2016-E2C01: Which of the following is true about contest operating?

Operators are permitted to make contacts even if they do not submit a log

Interference to other amateurs is unavoidable and therefore acceptable

It is mandatory to transmit the call sign of the station being worked as part of every transmission to that station

Every contest requires a signal report in the exchange



2016-E2C02: Which of the following best describes the term self-spotting in regards to HF contest operating?

The generally prohibited practice of posting one's own call sign and frequency on a spotting network

The acceptable practice of manually posting the call signs of stations on a spotting network

A manual technique for rapidly zero beating or tuning to a station's frequency before calling that station

An automatic method for rapidly zero beating or tuning to a station's frequency before calling that station



2016-E2C03: From which of the following bands is amateur radio contesting generally excluded?

30 m

6 m

2 m

33 cm



2016-E2C04: What type of transmission is most often used for a ham radio mesh network?

Spread spectrum in the 2.4 GHz band

Multiple Frequency Shift Keying in the 10 GHz band

Store and forward on the 440 MHz band

Frequency division multiplex in the 24 GHz band



2016-E2C05: What is the function of a DX QSL Manager?

To handle the receiving and sending of confirmation cards for a DX station

To allocate frequencies for DXpeditions

To run a net to allow many stations to contact a rare DX station

To relay calls to and from a DX station



2016-E2C06: During a VHF/UHF contest, in which band segment would you expect to find the highest level of activity?

In the weak signal segment of the band, with most of the activity near the calling frequency

At the top of each band, usually in a segment reserved for contests

In the middle of each band, usually on the national calling frequency

In the middle of the band, usually 25 kHz above the national calling frequency



2016-E2C07: What is the Cabrillo format?

A standard for submission of electronic contest logs

A method of exchanging information during a contest QSO

The most common set of contest rules

The rules of order for meetings between contest sponsors



2016-E2C08: Which of the following contacts may be confirmed through the U.S. QSL bureau system?

Contacts between a U.S. station and a non-U.S. station

Special event contacts between stations in the U.S.

Repeater contacts between U.S. club members

Contacts using tactical call signs



2016-E2C09: What type of equipment is commonly used to implement a ham radio mesh network?

A standard wireless router running custom software

A 2 meter VHF transceiver with a 1200 baud modem

An optical cable connection between the USB ports of 2 separate computers

A 440 MHz transceiver with a 9600 baud modem



2016-E2C10: Why might a DX station state that they are listening on another frequency?

All of these choices are correct

Because the DX station may be transmitting on a frequency that is prohibited to some responding stations

To separate the calling stations from the DX station

To improve operating efficiency by reducing interference



2016-E2C11: How should you generally identify your station when attempting to contact a DX station during a contest or in a pileup?

Send your full call sign once or twice

Send only the last two letters of your call sign until you make contact

Send your full call sign and grid square

Send the call sign of the DX station three times, the words "this is", then your call sign three times



2016-E2C12: What might help to restore contact when DX signals become too weak to copy across an entire HF band a few hours after sunset?

Switch to a lower frequency HF band

Switch to a higher frequency HF band

Wait 90 minutes or so for the signal degradation to pass

Wait 24 hours before attempting another communication on the band



2016-E2C13: What indicator is required to be used by U.S.-licensed operators when operating a station via remote control where the transmitter is located in the U.S.?

No additional indicator is required

/ followed by the USPS two letter abbreviation for the state in which the remote station is located

/R# where # is the district of the remote station

The ARRL section of the remote station






2016-E2D: Operating methods: VHF and UHF digital modes and procedures; APRS; EME procedures, meteor scatter procedures

2016-E2D01: Which of the following digital modes is especially designed for use for meteor scatter signals?

FSK441

WSPR

Hellschreiber

APRS



2016-E2D02: Which of the following is a good technique for making meteor scatter contacts?

All of these choices are correct

15 second timed transmission sequences with stations alternating based on location

Use of high speed CW or digital modes

Short transmission with rapidly repeated call signs and signal reports



2016-E2D03: Which of the following digital modes is especially useful for EME communications?

JT65

FSK441

PACTOR III

Olivia



2016-E2D04: What is the purpose of digital store-and-forward functions on an Amateur Radio satellite?

To store digital messages in the satellite for later download by other stations

To upload operational software for the transponder

To delay download of telemetry between satellites

To relay messages between satellites



2016-E2D05: Which of the following techniques is normally used by low Earth orbiting digital satellites to relay messages around the world?

Store-and-forward

Digipeating

Multi-satellite relaying

Node hopping



2016-E2D06: Which of the following describes a method of establishing EME contacts?

Time synchronous transmissions alternately from each station

Storing and forwarding digital messages

Judging optimum transmission times by monitoring beacons reflected from the Moon

High speed CW identification to avoid fading



2016-E2D07: What digital protocol is used by APRS?

AX.25

PACTOR

802.11

AMTOR



2016-E2D08: What type of packet frame is used to transmit APRS beacon data?

Unnumbered Information

Disconnect

Acknowledgement

Connect



2016-E2D09: Which of these digital modes has the fastest data throughput under clear communication conditions?

300 baud packet

AMTOR

170 Hz shift, 45 baud RTTY

PSK31



2016-E2D10: How can an APRS station be used to help support a public service communications activity?

An APRS station with a GPS unit can automatically transmit information to show a mobile station's position during the event

An APRS station with an emergency medical technician can automatically transmit medical data to the nearest hospital

APRS stations with General Personnel Scanners can automatically relay the participant numbers and time as they pass the check points

All of these choices are correct



2016-E2D11: Which of the following data are used by the APRS network to communicate your location?

Latitude and longitude

Polar coordinates

Time and frequency

Radio direction finding spectrum analysis



2016-E2D12: How does JT65 improve EME communications?

It can decode signals many dB below the noise floor using FEC

It controls the receiver to track Doppler shift

It supplies signals to guide the antenna to track the Moon

All of these choices are correct



2016-E2D13: What type of modulation is used for JT65 contacts?

Multi-tone AFSK

PSK

RTTY

IEEE 802.11



2016-E2D14: What is one advantage of using JT65 coding?

The ability to decode signals which have a very low signal to noise ratio

Uses only a 65 Hz bandwidth

Easily copied by ear if necessary

Permits fast-scan TV transmissions over narrow bandwidth






2016-E2E: Operating methods: operating HF digital modes

2016-E2E01: Which type of modulation is common for data emissions below 30 MHz?

FSK

DTMF tones modulating an FM signal

Pulse modulation

Spread spectrum



2016-E2E02: What do the letters FEC mean as they relate to digital operation?

Forward Error Correction

First Error Correction

Fatal Error Correction

Final Error Correction



2016-E2E03: How is the timing of JT65 contacts organized?

Alternating transmissions at 1 minute intervals

By exchanging ACK/NAK packets

Stations take turns on alternate days

It depends on the lunar phase



2016-E2E04: What is indicated when one of the ellipses in an FSK crossed-ellipse display suddenly disappears?

Selective fading has occurred

One of the signal filters is saturated

The receiver has drifted 5 kHz from the desired receive frequency

The mark and space signal have been inverted



2016-E2E05: Which type of digital mode does not support keyboard-to-keyboard operation?

Winlink

RTTY

PSK31

MFSK



2016-E2E06: What is the most common data rate used for HF packet?

300 baud

48 baud

110 baud

1200 baud



2016-E2E07: What is the typical bandwidth of a properly modulated MFSK16 signal?

316 Hz

31 Hz

550 Hz

2.16 kHz



2016-E2E08: Which of the following HF digital modes can be used to transfer binary files?

PACTOR

Hellschreiber

RTTY

AMTOR



2016-E2E09: Which of the following HF digital modes uses variable-length coding for bandwidth efficiency?

PSK31

RTTY

PACTOR

MT63



2016-E2E10: Which of these digital modes has the narrowest bandwidth?

PSK31

MFSK16

170 Hz shift, 45 baud RTTY

300-baud packet



2016-E2E11: What is the difference between direct FSK and audio FSK?

Direct FSK applies the data signal to the transmitter VFO

Audio FSK has a superior frequency response

Direct FSK uses a DC-coupled data connection

Audio FSK can be performed anywhere in the transmit chain



2016-E2E12: Which type of control is used by stations using the Automatic Link Enable (ALE) protocol?

Automatic

Local

Remote

ALE can use any type of control



2016-E2E13: Which of the following is a possible reason that attempts to initiate contact with a digital station on a clear frequency are unsuccessful?

All of these choices are correct

Your transmit frequency is incorrect

The protocol version you are using is not the supported by the digital station

Another station you are unable to hear is using the frequency





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