Propagation and technique, Aurora propagation; selective fading; radio-path horizon; take-off angle over flat or sloping terrain; effects of ground on propagation; less common propagation modes
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E3C-2012: Propagation and technique, Aurora propagation; selective fading; radio-path horizon; take-off angle over flat or sloping terrain; effects of ground on propagation; less common propagation modes

E3C01-2012: Which of the following effects does Aurora activity have on radio communications?

All of these choices are correct

SSB signals are raspy

Signals propagating through the Aurora are fluttery

CW signals appear to be modulated by white noise



E3C02-2012: What is the cause of Aurora activity?

The interaction of charged particles from the Sun with the Earth's magnetic field and the ionosphere

The interaction between the solar wind and the Van Allen belt

A low sunspot level combined with tropospheric ducting

Meteor showers concentrated in the northern latitudes



E3C03-2012: Where in the ionosphere does Aurora activity occur?

In the E-region

In the F1-region

In the F2-region

In the D-region



E3C04-2012: Which emission mode is best for Aurora propagation?

CW

SSB

FM

RTTY



E3C05-2012: Which of the following describes selective fading?

Partial cancellation of some frequencies within the received pass band

Variability of signal strength with beam heading

Sideband inversion within the ionosphere

Degradation of signal strength due to backscatter



E3C06-2012: By how much does the VHF/UHF radio-path horizon distance exceed the geometric horizon?

By approximately 15% of the distance

By approximately twice the distance

By approximately one-half the distance

By approximately four times the distance



E3C07-2012: How does the radiation pattern of a horizontally polarized 3-element beam antenna vary with its height above ground?

The main lobe takeoff angle decreases with increasing height

The main lobe takeoff angle increases with increasing height

The horizontal beam width increases with height

The horizontal beam width decreases with height



E3C08-2012: What is the name of the high-angle wave in HF propagation that travels for some distance within the F2 region?

Pedersen ray

Oblique-angle ray

Ordinary ray

Heaviside ray



E3C09-2012: Which of the following is usually responsible for causing VHF signals to propagate for hundreds of miles?

Tropospheric ducting

D-region absorption

Faraday rotation

Ground wave



E3C10-2012: How does the performance of a horizontally polarized antenna mounted on the side of a hill compare with the same antenna mounted on flat ground?

The main lobe takeoff angle decreases in the downhill direction

The main lobe takeoff angle increases in the downhill direction

The horizontal beam width decreases in the downhill direction

The horizontal beam width increases in the uphill direction



E3C11-2012: From the contiguous 48 states, in which approximate direction should an antenna be pointed to take maximum advantage of aurora propagation?

North

South

East

West



E3C12-2012: How does the maximum distance of ground-wave propagation change when the signal frequency is increased?

It decreases

It stays the same

It increases

It peaks at roughly 14 MHz



E3C13-2012: What type of polarization is best for ground-wave propagation?

Vertical

Horizontal

Circular

Elliptical



E3C14-2012: Why does the radio-path horizon distance exceed the geometric horizon?

Downward bending due to density variations in the atmosphere

E-region skip

D-region skip

Downward bending due to aurora refraction





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