Propagation and technique, trans-equatorial; long path; gray-line; multi-path propagation
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E3B-2012: Propagation and technique, trans-equatorial; long path; gray-line; multi-path propagation

E3B01-2012: What is transequatorial propagation?

Propagation between two mid-latitude points at approximately the same distance north and south of the magnetic equator

Propagation between any two points located on the magnetic equator

Propagation between two continents by way of ducts along the magnetic equator

Propagation between two stations at the same latitude



E3B02-2012: What is the approximate maximum range for signals using transequatorial propagation?

5000 miles

1000 miles

2500 miles

7500 miles



E3B03-2012: What is the best time of day for transequatorial propagation?

Afternoon or early evening

Morning

Noon

Late at night



E3B04-2012: What type of propagation is probably occurring if an HF beam antenna must be pointed in a direction 180 degrees away from a station to receive the strongest signals?

Long-path

Sporadic-E

Transequatorial

Auroral



E3B05-2012: Which amateur bands typically support long-path propagation?

160 to 10 meters

160 to 40 meters

30 to 10 meters

6 meters to 2 meters



E3B06-2012: Which of the following amateur bands most frequently provides long-path propagation?

20 meters

80 meters

10 meters

6 meters



E3B07-2012: Which of the following could account for hearing an echo on the received signal of a distant station?

Receipt of a signal by more than one path

High D layer absorption

Meteor scatter

Transmit frequency is higher than the MUF



E3B08-2012: What type of HF propagation is probably occurring if radio signals travel along the terminator between daylight and darkness?

Gray-line

Transequatorial

Sporadic-E

Long-path



E3B09-2012: At what time of day is gray-line propagation most likely to occur?

At sunrise and sunset

When the Sun is directly above the location of the transmitting station

When the Sun is directly overhead at the middle of the communications path between the two stations

When the Sun is directly above the location of the receiving station



E3B10-2012: What is the cause of gray-line propagation?

At twilight, D-layer absorption drops while E-layer and F-layer propagation remain strong

At midday, the Sun being directly overhead superheats the ionosphere causing increased refraction of radio waves

In darkness, solar absorption drops greatly while atmospheric ionization remains steady

At mid afternoon, the Sun heats the ionosphere decreasing radio wave refraction and the MUF



E3B11-2012: Which of the following describes gray-line propagation?

Long distance communications at twilight on frequencies less than 15 MHz

Backscatter contacts on the 10 meter band

Over the horizon propagation on the 6 and 2 meter bands

Tropospheric propagation on the 2 meter and 70 centimeter bands





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